These evergreen, coniferous trees have whorled branches and leaves that are needle-like. Female cones ripen from green or red to purple or brown. Male cones are yellow to reddish purple. Useful for screening, windbreaks, specimens.
Noteworthy CharacteristicsAttractive foliage, cones, and shapes.
CareMoist but well-drained, deep soil, with neutral to acidic pH.
PropagationStart seeds in a cold frame in spring. Graft cultivars in winter. For dwarf cultivars, take ripewood cuttings in late summer.
ProblemsGall insects, aphids, caterpillars, sawfly, spider mites, lesion nematodes, and scale insects are common. Some diseases may occur, including butt and heart rots, witches' broom, mistletoe, rust, and needle cast.