The Dirt

Chapter 7: Some Useful Inorganics, Organics, and Botanicals

Chapter 7: Some Useful Inorganics, Organics, and Botanicals

Agrios, G.N. 1969. Plant Pathology. New York: Academic Press. 629 pp. Contains information about sulfur as a fungicide. 

Amonkar, S.V., and A. Banerji. 1971. Isolation and characterization of larvicidal principles of garlic. Science 174:1343-1344. An important early paper reporting on the larvicidal effects of garlic extracts on mosquitoes.

Casida, J.E., ed. 1973. Pyrethrum, he Natural Insecticide. New York: Academic Press. 329 pp. Reviews the chemistry and toxicology of natural pyrethrum and synthetic pyrethroids.

Davidson, J.A., S.A. Gill, and M.J. Raupp. 1990. Foliar and growth effects of repetitive summer horticultural oil sprays on trees and shrubs under drought stress. Journal of Arboriculture 16(4):77-81. This paper was the source of the information on plant species that tolerate oil sprays while under drought stress in hot summer weather.

Ebeling, W. 1971. Sorptive dusts for pest control. Annual Review of Entomology 16:123-158. An early review paper on sorptive dusts, their action, and their use as pest control agents.  

Ebeling, W. 1975. Urban Entomology. Los Angeles: University of California, Division of Agricultural Sciences. 695 pp. A very useful source of information on silica aerogel, boric acid, other urban/suburban pesticides, and the biology and management of urban pests.

Findlay, W.P.K. 1960. Boron compounds for the preservation of timber against fungi and insects. German Wood Research Association, 6th Wood Protection Congress, July 1959. In Pest Technololgy 2(6):124-127. This is a general discussion of the development and efficacy of boron-containing wood preservatives.

Grossman, J. 1990. Horticultural oils: New summer uses on ornamental plant pests. The IPM Practitioner 12(8):1-9. This review brings together the latest information about the uses of horticultural oils on ornamental plants and their pests.

Henn, T., and R. Weinzierl. 1989. Botanical Insecticides and Insecticidal Soaps. Urbana-Champaign: University of Illinois Office of Agricultural Entomology (Circular 1296). 18 pp. A short, comprehensive paper that updates a great deal of information. 

Horst, R.K. 1979. Westcott’s Plant Disease Handbook. 4th ed. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. 803 pp. A useful diagnostic guide for the layperson concerned about plant diseases in ornamental and food gardens. The treatment emphasis is on pesticides, however, and no references are provided. 

Johnson, W.T. 1980. Spray oils as insecticides. Journal of Arboriculture 6(7):169-174. A thorough discussion of modern horticultural-oil formulations and how to use them. 

Johnson, W.T. 1982. Horticultural spray oils for tree pest control. Weeds, Trees, and Turf May:36-40. This paper clears up many misconceptions about the formulation and application of horticultural oils.

Klingman, G.C., and F.M. Ashton. 1975. Weed Science: Principles and Practices. New York: John Wiley and Sons. 431 pp. This basic text on weed control covers all the basic herbicide groups and provides information about using herbicides.

Leung, A.Y. 1980. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used In Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics. New York: John Wiley and Sons. 409 pp. A basic reference work that covers the common natural food ingredients, some of which are used in pesticidal products. The short general descriptions provide information on chemical composition, pharmacological or biological uses, and commercial preparations. The book is thoroughly referenced. 

Mallis, A. 1982. Handbook of Pest Control. 6th ed. Cleveland: Franzak and Foster. 1,101 pp. A basic handbook for the pest control professional that contains much information about sorptive dusts and other pesticides. 

MSDS Reference for Crop Protection Chemicals. 1989. 2nd ed. New York: John Wiley and Sons. 1,358 pp. This book contains Material Safety Data Sheets for most companies in the United States that manufacture agricultural chemicals. The chemicals are indexed by manufacturer as well as by brand name. The publishers have also included information on EPA reporting requirements and a list of extremely hazardous substances.

Mullison, W.R., ed. 1979. Herbicide Handbook. 4th ed. Champaign, Ill.: Weed Science Society of America. 479 pp. Although this book lacks a thorough review of the existing literature on chronic toxicity and includes largely producer information, it is very useful to those learning about the properties of herbicides and the limitations of their use. The herbicides are listed alphabetically, with information on physical and chemical properties, use, precautions, physiological behavior, behavior in or on soils, and toxicological properties. The toxicity discussion includes the effects on wildlife, acute toxicity in different test animals and with different routes of exposure, sub-acute toxicity, and chronic toxicity.

Nath, A., N.K. Sharma, S. Bhardway, and C.K. Thapa. 1982. Short communications. Nematologica 28: 253-255. This paper discusses the garlic extracts that kill two nematode species. 

National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). 1974. Criteria for a Recommended Standard for Occupational Exposure to Crystalline Silica. Cincinnati: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (Centers for Disease Control Publication 75120). 121 pp. This publication discusses exposure standards for crystalline silica. 

National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). 1978. A Recommended Standard for Occupational Exposure to Refined Petroleum Solvents. Cincinnati: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. 10 pp. (Single copies available from: OSHA, Division of Technical Services, Publication Dissemination, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226.) This pamphlet recommends the use of an organic-vapor cartridge respirator for Stoddard solvents, mineral spirits, and kerosene and specifies permissible exposure levels and types of protective equipment. 

Nelson, R.H. 1975. Pyrethrum Flowers, 1945-1972. 3rd ed. Minneapolis: McLaughlin Gormley King. 149 pp. A good discussion of developments affecting the use and manufacture of pyrethrum flowers and pyrethrum extracts.

Pimentel, D., ed. 1981. CRC Handbook of Pest Management in Agriculture: Vol. III. Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press. 656 pp. This exhaustively referenced volume provides a good overview of major pesticides used in agriculture and horticulture, together with IPM-oriented discussions of pest management in major crops.

Powers, K.A. 1985. Toxicological aspects of linalool: a review. Veterinary and Human Toxicology 27(6):484-486. A summary of studies on the toxicity of linalool. 

Puritch, G.S. 1981. “Pesticidal soaps and adjuvants: what are they and how do they work?” Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Lower Mainland Horticultural Improvement Association Grower’s Short Course, February 11, 12 and 13, Abbotsford, B.C. (Available from Dr. G.S. Puritch, Safer’s Ltd., 6761 Kirkpatrick Crescent, RR3, Victoria, BC V8X 3X1 Canada.) Includes an introduction to the chemistry of pesticidal soaps. 

Quraishi, M.S. 1977. Biochemical Insect Control. New York: John Wiley and Sons. 280 pp. An introduction to pyrethroids, botanicals, attractants, pheromones, hormones, and microbial insecticides.

Roe, F.J., and W.E. Field. 1965. Chronic toxicity of essential oils and certain other products of natural origin. Food and Cosmetic Toxicology 3:311-324. This is the source of the information on tumor formation in mice treated with d-limonene. 

Saleem, Z.M., and K. Al-Delaimy. 1981. Inhibition of Bacillus cereus by garlic extracts. Journal of Food Protection 45(11):1007-1009. Documentation of some of the bacteriocidal effects of garlic extracts. 

Schmutterer, H., K.R.S. Ascher, and H. Rembold. 1981. “Natural pesticides from the neem tree (Azadirachta indica)”. Proceedings of the First International Neem Conference, Rottach, Egern, Federal Republic of Germany, 16-18 June, 1980. These conference proceedings contain research papers on neem, its mode of action and its impact on pests and nontarget organisms. 

Shepard, H.H. 1939. The Chemistry and Toxicology of Insecticides. Minneapolis, Minn: Burgess Publishing Co. 383 pp. This is the source of the information in the chart “Some Well-Known Botanical Pesticides”. 

Smith, M.D. 1982. The Ortho Problem Solver. San Francisco: Ortho Information Services. 1,022 pp. Although essentially a promotional effort for Ortho (Chevron Chemical Co.) products, this large book with many color photographs brings together a composite of Cooperative Extension Service recommendations for house-plant, household, garden, insect, weed, and plant problems in the United States. It includes many nontoxic control methods. 

Thomson, W.T. 1977. Agricultural Chemical Handbook II: Herbicides. Fresno, Calif.: Thompson Publ. 264 pp. This handbook includes two pages of information on petroleum oils and weed oils. 

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1988. Pesticide Fact Book. Park Ridge, N.J.: Noyes Data Corporation. 810 pp. A collection of 130 pesticide fact sheets that summarize the properties, formulations, use patterns, and toxicology of various chemicals. The “scientific findings” section on each fact sheet lists major toxicological data available, and perhaps more important, notes where data gaps on health and environmental effects occur. 

Von Nasseh, O.M. 1982. Zur Wirkung von Knoblauchextrakt auf Syrphus corollae F., Chrysopa carnea Steph. und Coccinella septempunctata. Zeitschrift für angewandte Entomologie 94:123-126. A paper in German describing the toxic effects of garlic extracts on a series of aphid predators. 

Ware, G.W. 1986. Fundamentals of Pesticides: A Self-Instruction Guide. Fresno, Calif.: Thompson Publ. 274 pp. An excellent introduction to pesticides and their chemistry. 

Weir, R.J., Jr., and R.S. Fisher. 1971. Toxicologic studies on borax and boric acid. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 23:351-364. A summary of feeding studies on rats showing low acute toxicity of borax products. 

Westcott, C. 1971. Plant Disease Handbook, 3rd ed. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. 843 pp. This book was a source of much of the information on sulfur, particularly its formulations and side effects. 

Worthing, C. R. 1979. The Pesticide Manual: A World Compendium. 6th ed. Croydon, England: British Crop Protection Council (BCPC) Publications. 655 pp. This was one source for the LD50 and other toxicity information quoted in this chapter.

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