The Dirt

Chapter 11: Safe and Sane Weed Management

Chapter 11: Safe and Sane Weed Management 

Adams, T.E., and B. Kay. 1982. Seeding for Erosion Control in Coastal and Central California. Davis: University of California Cooperative Extension (Leaflet 21304). 4 pp. (Available from: ANR Publications, 6701 San Pablo Ave., Oakland, CA 94608-1239). This excellent booklet provides useful tips on ways to manipulate fertilization to encourage growth of wildflowers and/or clover versus grasses. 

Aldrich, R.J. 1984. Weed-Crop Ecology: Principles in Weed Management. Belmont, Calif.: Breton Publishers. 465 pp. An excellent text on agricultural weed management from an ecological perspective.

 Allan, Mea. 1978. Weeds-the Unbidden Guests in Our Gardens. New York: Viking Press. 191 pp. A well-illustrated book of common weeds found in Britain and North America, including discussions of how the weeds migrate and why many immigrant plants are considered undesirable. The useful characteristics of many weeds are outlined, and over 200 weeds are illustrated and described. 

Anderson, R.C., A.J. Katz, and M.R. Anderson. 1978. Allelopathy as a factor in the success of Helianthus mollis. Journal of Chemical Ecology 4(1):9-16. This is one of the sources of the information summarized in “Plants Showing Allelopathic Effects on Weeds” on pp. 202-203; other sources are listed throughout this reference list. 

Bokhari, U.G. 1978. Allelopathy among prairie grasses and its possible ecological significance. American Botany 42:127-136. This is one of the sources of the information presented in “Plants Showing Allelopathic Effects on Weeds” on pp. 202-203. 

Burger, A.A. 1925. Kill Canada Thistles. Wallace’s Farmer 50:822. A delightful, first-person narrative of one of the earliest successful attempts at controlling Canada thistle using cultural methods.  

Cocannouer, J.A. 1964. Weeds: Guardians of the Soil. New York: Devin-Adair. 179 pp. This folksy volume presents in anecdotal style observations of the positive roles weeds play in improving soils.  

Corkins, C.L., and A.B. Ellegde. 1940. Continuous burning to eradicate noxious weeds. The Reclamation Era (May). This is the source of the report on the accidental discovery of the flaming technique for weed control. 

Daar, S. 1991. Vegetation management on rights-of-way: an ecological approach. The IPM Practitioner 8(2):1-7. This article describes techniques used by utility companies to establish low-growing, stable shrublands under power lines to replace problem trees. The techniques substantially reduced use of herbicides, and can be used along roads, park trails, and other rights-of-way. 

Egler, F.E. 1957. Science, industry, and the abuse of rights-of-way. Science 127:573-580. A biting indictment of the headlong rush into the use of herbicides on roadsides and under power lines without consideration of the environmental consequences. It was written at the time synthetic herbicides were just beginning to be used widely and indiscriminately. 

Fay, P.K., and W.B. Duke. 1977. An assessment of the allelopathic potential in Avena germ plasm. Weed Science 25(3): 224-228. This is one of the sources of the information presented in “Plants Showing Allelopathic Effects on Weeds” on pp. 202-203. 

Fischer, B.B, A.H. Lange, J. McCaskill, B. Crampton, and B. Tabraham. 1978. Grower’s Weed Identification Handbook. Berkeley: University of California Cooperative Extension Service (Publication 4030). 250 pp. (Available from: ANR Publications, 6701 San Pablo Ave., Oakland, CA 94608-1239.) Excellent color photographs of the seed, seedling, and flowering stage of each of more than 170 weed species, together with summaries of pertinent biological and ecological information, make this the best weed identification tool currently available.

Green, J. 1982. Complementary field plantings: grass and nursery plants. Ornamentals Northwest Newsletter 6(3): 8-9. (Available free from: Horticulture Department, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331.) Practical advise on the use of sod aisles and other complementary planting techniques.  

Harrington, H.D., and L.W. Durrell. 1957. How to Identify Plants. Chicago: Swallow Press. 203 pp. A well-written book that takes the mystery out of botanical nomenclature. It includes a list of keys to plants of the United States.  

Hesketh, K.A., and C.L. Elmore. 1982. Vegetable Plantings without Weeds. Berkeley: University of California, Division of Agricultural Sciences (Leaflet 21153). 19 pp. This concise booklet spells out procedures for reducing weeds through soil solarization. It also describes how cultivation and irrigation techniques can be used together to reduce weed growth. 

Hoffman, G.R., and D.L. Hazlett. 1977. Effects of aqueous Artemesia extracts and volatile substances on germination of selected species. Journal of Range Management 30(2):134-137. This is one of the sources of the information presented in “Plants Showing Allelopathic Effects on Weeds” on pp. 202-203. 

Ingels, C.A., R.L. Bugg, G.T. McGourty, and L.P. Christensen, Editors. 2005. Cover Cropping in Vineyards, A Grower’s Handbook. UC-ANR Publication #3338. Richmond, California: University of California ANR Communications Services. 162 pp.

Isely, D. 1960. Weed Identification and Control. Ames: Iowa State University Press. 400 pp.An excellent key to common weeds of the United States.

Jeavons, J. 2012. How to Grow More Vegetables than You Ever Thought Possible On Less Land Than You Can Imagine, Eighth Edition. Berkeley, California: Ten Speed Press. 256 pp. This ground-breaking book introduced American gardeners to the French intensive method of gardening. It details strategies for maximizing yields on small garden plots using ecologically sound techniques.  

Johnson, C. Undated. Management of Weeder Geese in Commercial Crops. Madera: University of California Cooperative Extension Service. 2 pp. Includes a concise summary of the management of weeder geese together with a cost analysis. 

Katan, J. 1981. Solar heating (solarization) of soil for control of soil-borne pests. Annual Review of Phytopathology 19:211-236. This paper describes the solarization technique for disease control. The same information can be extrapolated for use against weeds. 

King, L.J. 1966. Weeds of the World. New York: Interscience. 526 pp. One of the most thoroughly researched discussions of the origin, botany, spread, and control of agricultural weeds ever written. Includes a good chapter on non-chemical methods for control of weeds (with an excellent bibliography).  

Klingman, G.C., F.M. Ashton, and L.J. Noordhoff. 1975. Weed Science: Principles and Practices. New York: John Wiley and Sons. 431 pp. A standard weed control text with explanations of various chemical classes of herbicides. 

Larson, M.M., and E.L. Schwartz. 1980. Allelopathic inhibition of black locust, red clover, and black alder by six common herbaceous species. Forest Science 261(3):511-520. This is one of the sources of the information presented in “Plants Showing Allelopathic Effects on Weeds” on pp. 202-203.  

Lockerman, R.H., and A.R. Putnam. 1979. Evaluation of allelopathic cucumbers (Cucumis sativus) as an aid to weed control. Weed Science 27(1):54-57. This is one of the sources of the information presented in “Plants Showing Allelopathic Effects on Weeds” on pp. 202-203. 

McLeod, Edwin. 1983. Feed the Soil. Graton, Calif.: Organic Agricultural Research Institute. 209 pp. (Available from: AgAccess, P.O. Box 2008, Davis, CA 95617.) This wonderful book tells you everything you need to know about dozens of nitrogen-fixing plants that improve the soil.

Moore, R.J. 1975. The biology of Canadian weeds: Cirsium arvense. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 55:1033-1048. This is the source of the information on the mowing method used to virtually eliminate Canada thistle from a pasture within two to three seasons.

Muenscher, W.C. 1980. Weeds. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press. 586 pp. An excellent reference tool for identifying weeds. It contains a key to and descriptions of over 570 weeds found throughout the United States and Canada. Control information is limited to mechanical methods.

Nicolson, P., ed. 1983. Vita Sackville-West’s Garden Book. New York: Atheneum. 250 pp. This book is composed of garden columns written by Sackville-West in the London Observer from 1951 to 1958 chronicling her experience in her garden at Sissinghurst Castle. She cautions against the indiscriminate removal of weeds.

Niering, W.A. 1958. Principles of sound right-of-way vegetation management. Economic Botany 12:140-144. Niering’s was one of the early voices in opposition to strict reliance on herbicides for control of vegetation along power lines and roadsides.

Peters, E.J., and A.H.B. Mohammed Zam. 1981. Allelopathic effects of tall fescue genotypes. Agronomy Journal 73:56-58. This is one of the sources of the information presented in “Plants Showing Allelopathic Effects on Weeds” on pp. 202-203.

Putnam, A.R., and W.B. Duke. 1974. Biological suppression of weeds: evidence for allelopathy on accessions of cucumber. Science 185: 370-372. This is one of the sources of the information presented in “Plants Showing Allelopathic Effects on Weeds” on pp. 202-203.

Radosevich, S.R., and J.S. Holt. 1984. Weed Ecology. New York: John Wiley and Sons. 265 pp. An excellent introduction to weed management based on ecological principles.

Rice, E.L. 1972. Allelopathic effects of Andropogon virginicus and its persistence in old fields. American Journal of Botany 59(7):752-755. This is one of the sources of the information presented in “Plants Showing Allelopathic Effects on Weeds” on pp. 202-203.

Schenck, Linda E. 1978. Allelopathy: chemical conversation between plants. The Cornell Plantation 34(2): 21-26. A discussion of the mechanisms of allelopathy and how they are exhibited by various plant species.

Subcommittee on Standardizaton of Common and Botanical Names of Weeds. 1989. Composite list of weeds. (Available from: The Weed Science Society, 309 W. Clark St., Champaign, IL 61820.) A very useful list of the most recent scientific names assigned to common weeds.

Subcommittee on Weeds. 1968. Weed Control. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences (Publication 1597). 471 pp. An excellent discussion of integrated approaches to weed control that focuses primarily on food crops.

Swan, D.G., L.E. Foote, T.M. Evans, R.L. Berger, and W.E. Currie. 1980. Weed Control On Rights-Of-Way. Pullman: Washington State University Cooperative Extension Service (Bulletin 0669). 27 pp. This well-illustrated booklet provides an overview of how herbicides affect plants, how to select them, and how to time their use. If you plan to use herbicides occasionally, this is a good primer.

USDA Soil Conservation Service. 1981. Cover Crops in California Orchards and Vineyards. 25 pp. (Available from: Publications, USDA Soil Conservation Service, 2828 Chiles Rd., Davis, CA 95616.) A useful discussion of selecting, establishing, and managing cover crops. The management techniques are applicable to orchards and vineyards throughout the United States. The particular plant species described are suited to California and similar Mediterranean climates.

Walters, D.T., and A.R. Gilmore. 1976. Allelopathic effects of fescue on the growth of sweetgum. Journal of Chemical Ecology 2(4):469-479. This is one of the sources of the information presented in “Plants Showing Allelopathic Effects on Weeds” on pp. 202-203.

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