The Dirt

Chapter 15: Pests of Shade Trees

Chapter 15: Pests of Shade Trees

Boyd, K. 1989. Controlling Gypsy Moth Caterpillars With Barrier Bands. University of Maryland Cooperative Extension Service (Fact Sheet 476). 4 pp. ( An excellent illustrated guide.

Bumstead, C., A. Knaus, and A. Jones, eds. 1986. Pesticides: A Community Action Guide. Concern, Inc. 23 pp. (Available from: Concern, 1794 Columbia Rd., NW, Washington, D.C. 20009.) An introduction to the complex issues surrounding chemical pesticides, with advice on the role individuals and communities can play in determining safe use and more effective regulation of these materials.

Davidson, J.A., S.A. Gill, and W.T. Johnson. 1989. Foliar and growth effects of repetitive summer horticultural oil sprays on trees and shrubs under drought stress. Journal of Arboriculture 16(4):77-81. This study reveals that the new, highly refined horticultural oils can be sprayed on many tree species while in full leaf and during high temperatures without causing significant damage. Former “dormant” oils were thought to be safe to use only when trees were dormant and without leaves. 

Doane, C., and M. McManus, eds. 1981. The Gypsy Moth: Research Toward Integrated Pest Management. Washington, D.C.: USDA, U.S. Forest Service (Bulletin 1584). 757 pp. A detailed description of the first 90 years of American efforts to control this introduced pest. 

Flint, M.L., S.H. Dreistadt, and J.K. Clark. 1998. Natural Enemies Handbook: The Illustrated Guide to Biological Pest Control. Richmond, CA.: University of California ANR Communication Services. Publication #3386. 154 pp.

Grossman, J. 1990. Horticultural oils: new summer uses on ornamental plant pests. The IPM Practitioner 12(8):1-10. This article summarizes recent applied research using horticultural oils to kill common caterpillars and other pests on ornamental trees and shrubs. It discusses which oils to use and when to take precautions to prevent damage to the plants.

Harris, R.W. 1983. Arboriculture: Care of Trees, Shrubs, and Vines In the Landscape. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. 688 pp. An excellent, basic book on the proper management of trees.  

Johnson, W.T., and H.H. Lyon. 1988. Insects That Feed on Trees and Shrubs, an Illustrated Practical Guide, 2nd ed. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press. 464 pp. A greatly expanded edition of a highly acclaimed work first published in 1976. Although there are no precise recommendations for management, this reference is a primary starting place for identification, biological summaries, and access to the literature, which is widely scattered and is seldom integrated. The IPM philosophy is advanced by the authors in the introductory section.

Miller, R.W. 1988. Urban Forestry: Planning and Managing Urban Green-Spaces. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. 404 pp. This book does an excellent job of summarizing the value of trees in urban environments, and provides good models for intelligent tree management. The focus is on the “big picture,” including discussions of tree ordinances, managing street tree planting programs, pruning schedules and caring for park and right-of-way vegetation. In our experience of developing IPM programs for municipal trees, the better organized the street tree department, the more likely the success of an IPM program.

(Note: All publications below by William Olkowski et al. are available from the author at the Bio Integral Resource Center (BIRC), P.O. Box 7414, Berkeley, CA 94707.) 

Olkowski, W. 1973. “A Model Ecosystem Management Program” proceedings of the Tall Timbers Conference on Ecological Animal Control by Habitat Management 5:103-117. This paper presents a flow diagram of the components of an IPM program developed for the city of Berkeley, California. It also advances for the first time the concept of an aesthetic injury level.  

Olkowski, W. 1989. Update: biological control of aphids: what’s really involved. The IPM Practitioner 11(4):1-9. This review article discusses important classic cases of parasitoid importation against aphids and the theory behind it. It summarizes efforts to import natural enemies.  

Olkowski, W., and S. Daar. 1986. Biocontrol of winter moth on Vancouver Island. The IPM Practitioner 8(3):4-5. A description of a successful Canadian program against this introduced tree pest. 

Olkowski, W., and S. Daar. 1989. Chinese use insect-attacking nematodes against major pests. The IPM Practitioner 11(11/12):1-8. A discussion of the innovative use of beneficial nematodes by the Chinese to control various pests, including an analog of the codling moth, an apple pest in the United States and carpenter worm borers of shade trees.

Olkowski, W., S. Daar, M. Green, D. Anderson, and J. Hyde. 1986. Update: new IPM methods for elm leaf beetles. The IPM Practitioner 8(5):1-7. This report summarizes work on the development of an IPM program featuring the use of insecticidal bands applied to tree trunks to reduce elm leaf beetle populations. The work was conducted over eight years in various cities in northern California. Previous work attempting to establish parasitoids against the elm leaf beetle is also summarized.


Olkowski, W., and H. Olkowski. 1975. Establishing an integrated pest control program for street trees. Journal of Arboriculture 1:167-172. The practical aspects of establishing an IPM program with a street tree maintenance department are discussed. Examples are taken from working IPM programs in Berkeley and San Jose, California, which involved 300,000 street trees over 500 sq. mi. containing over half a million people. The discussion also covers the management of the program, including the operation of a foreign exploration component. It contains preliminary results from successful importation projects and comments on biological control.

Olkowski, W., and H. Olkowski. 1976. Entomophobia in the urban ecosystem, some observations and suggestions. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of America 22(3):313-317. A summary from personal observations and published literature of the irrational fear of insects. The article discusses the need for education in IPM and how the educational program should be structured.  

Olkowski, W., H. Olkowski, and S. Daar. 1984. Integrated Pest Management for Tent Caterpillars: A BIRC Technical Review. Berkeley, California: Bio-Integral Resource Center. 20 pp. This booklet uses an IPM framework to review the literature on tent caterpillars of the United States. It was originally prepared for the National Park Service.

 Olkowski, W., H. Olkowski, T. Drylik, M. Minter, R. Zuparko, L. Laub, L. Orthel, and N. Heidler. 1978. “Pest Control Strategies: Urban Integrated Pest Management” in Pest Control Strategies, eds. E.H. Smith and D. Pimentel, pp. 215-234. New York: Academic Press. 334 pp. This chapter reviews preliminary surveys on urban pests in California. It covers pesticide use, presents data on the aesthetic injury of street trees, and summarizes pest problems faced by an urban biological control project managing street trees in five cities in the San Francisco Bay Area in 1976 and 1977. The need to include biological control importation in an IPM program is also discussed. 

Olkowski, W., H. Olkowski, R. van den Bosch, and R. Hom. 1976. Ecosystem management: a framework for urban pest control. Bioscience 26(6):384-389.In addition to discussing how an IPM program fits into an ecosystem management framework, this paper summarizes pesticide use changes over a six-year period in Berkeley, California. 

Olkowski, W., D. Pinnock, W. Toney, G. Mosher, W. Neasbitt, R van den Bosch, and H. Olkowski. 1974. An integrated insect control program for street trees. California Agriculture 28(1):3-4. This paper announced some of the results of a project then running for three years with the Berkeley Recreation and Parks Department that developed an IPM program for 30,000 street trees of 123 species. IPM had not previously been used in urban settings. The city saved about $22,500 a year by shifting from primarily foliar applications of insecticides to a system that stressed biological controls and required monitoring and the establishment of aesthetic injury levels before treatment was undertaken. This was the first IPM program for a city tree system in North America. 

Olkowski, H., T. Stewart, W. Olkowski, and S. Daar. 1982. Designing and Implementing Integrated Pest Management Programs for Cities” in Urban and Suburban Trees: Pest Problems, Needs, Prospects, and Solutions, eds. B.O. Parks, F.A. Fear, M.T. Lambur, and G.A. Simmons, pp. 149-155. Proceedings of a conference held at Michigan State University, Kellogg Center for Continuing Education, East Lansing, Michigan, April 18-20, 1982. 253 pp. A conceptual description of the IPM process, including a discussion of barriers to the adoption of IPM technology. Examples of psychological resistance are provided, with suggestions on how to plan for and overcome this resistance. 

Shigo, A. 1986. A New Tree Biology: Facts, Photos, and Philosophies on Trees and Their Problems and Proper Care. Durham, N.H.: Shigo and Trees, Assoc. 595 pp. This book is a collection of informative black and white photographs illustrating tree biology and practical management techniques. The corresponding text combines biological insights with inspirational vision. Shigo has devoted a lifetime to understanding how trees fight infections by organisms and damage from physical and human agents. The highly accessible, innovative format is composed of a picture followed by a paragraph or so of comment. This makes it easy to read and digest short sections at a sitting. There are no references or index, but the organization of the book is readily apparent and one can find subjects through the table of contents. This is an outstanding book on tree care. 

Sinclair, W.A., H.H. Lyon, and W.T. Johnson. 1987. Diseases of Trees and Shrubs. Ithaca, N.Y.: Comstock Publishing, Cornell University Press. 574 pp. This basic resource on the identification and biology of diseases of shade trees and ornamental shrubs is already a classic in its field. The 247 color plates composed of 1,700 individual photographs are of great value in identification. The notes on the facing pages provide biological explanations of the pathogens or conditions pictured. Although precise directions for management are not provided, the biological information is critical for developing management programs. Everyone who works with trees and shrubs should use this book and its companion volume by Johnson and Lyon (above). 

Tong, X.W. 1989. Enhancement of egg parasitization of pine caterpillars in China. The IPM Practitioner 11(2):12. An English language abstract of important Chinese biological control work against this tree pest, reprinted from the Chinese Journal of Biological Control. The Chinese are far ahead of the Americans in using methods of biological control enhancement.

Xie, Q.K. 1989. Moving spiders to control pine sawfly in China. The IPM Practitioner 11(3):14. This paper was translated by BIRC’s China Program staff. An English language abstract was published to encourage pest control researchers in the U.S. to place more emphasis on spiders in the control of pests and their potential use in biological control augmentation efforts. 

Zhang, L.Q. 1989. Biological control of a wood borer in China. The IPM Practitioner 11(5):5-7. Borers are extremely difficult to control, and the Chinese work rearing and releasing parasitoids is innovative and successful. This article reports on one example.


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